Contacts date back as early as the 11th century when Edmund Ironside’s son Edward Atheling married Agatha (Ágota) the daughter, but according to other sources sister, of Stephen I, the founder of the Hungarian Kingdom. Their daughter, Margaret, i.e. St. Margaret Queen of Scotland (Skóciai Szent Margit) was born in southern Hungary, in the village of Nádas (Mecseknádas), probably in Castle Réka in 1047. Her memory is cherished locally in several forms of statues, plaques and a memorial stone.
Much later Adam Clark, the civil engineer gifted the developing capital with its major landmark, the Chain Bridge in the 1840s. He fell in love with Hungary literally, married a Hungarian lady, Mária Áldásy and settled in Buda. His name is Hungarianised, everybody in Budapest knows where Clark Ádám tér is where there is a 3 m high limestone sculpture, which is the zero kilometre stone of Budapest.
Last but not least, we find it our mission to make Jane Haining’s name known to Scottish people. She was one of the great heroines who is less known but her moral greatness will always remain in Hungarian hearts. Read more and watch the documentaries about her in the section below.
Scottish visitors to Hungary will feel at home for several common features in mentality, like adament insistance on freedom, love of poetry (no wonder there are many parallels between the two rascals, Robert Burns and Sándor Petőfi) and the pride to preserve their culture, history and heritage.
Fungarian invites all their Scottish guests to enjoy themselves in Hungary, taste our food and drinks, revel in our thermal baths and admire the architectural beauty of Buda and Pest.
St. Margaret Queen of Scotland (Skóciai Szent Margit )
Margaret was the daughter of the English prince, Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund Ironside, king of England. From the Hungarian side, she was the granddaughter of Stephen I, also Saint Stephen, the first Christian King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038. After the Danish conquest of England in 1016, Canute had the infant Edward exiled to the continent. He was taken first to the court of the Swedish king, Olof Skötkonung, and then to Kiev. As an adult, he travelled to Hungary, where in 1046 he supported Andrew I’s successful bid for the throne. He was then also known as “Andrew the Catholic” for his extreme aversion to pagans, and great loyalty to Rome. The provenance of Margaret’s mother, Agatha, is legally disputed, but Margaret was born in Hungary around 1045. Her brother Edgar the Ætheling and her sister Cristinawere also born in Hungary around this time. Margaret grew up in a very religious environment in the Hungarian court.
St.Margaret’s memory is cherished in Hungary – see some local photos:
More thorough information on the Queen for your enjoyment here. Submitted by Karen MacKenzie.
Adam Clark, (born August 14, 1811, Edinburgh, Scotland—died July 23, 1866, Buda [now Budapest], Hungary), British civil engineer who is associated with the construction of the Széchenyi Chain Bridge (Széchenyi Lánchíd) between Buda and Pest (two districts of present-day Budapest), the first permanent bridge over the Danube River in Hungary. He also designed the Buda Tunnel at the Buda bridgehead. The square between the bridge and the tunnel is named for him and is the official point of origin of the country’s road network, with a sculptured “zero kilometre stone” in the centre.
In 1834 the social and political reformer István, Gróf (count) Széchenyi, who saw the improvement of communications as a necessary condition of Hungary’s economic development, engaged Clark to direct the installation of equipment bought for the Danube regulation works. Because William Clark (no relation), the English engineer who designed the Chain Bridge, could spend only a few weeks a year in Pest, in 1839 he commissioned Adam Clark to direct the construction. In 1847 Széchenyi made Adam Clark technical adviser to the National Transport Commission, and in the following year, as minister of public works, Széchenyi made him technical adviser to the ministry. Clark twice saved the bridge: first, from the Austrian general who, during the revolution of 1849, wanted to blow up the bridge and, second, from the commander of the Hungarian army, who gave orders to destroy it as his troops retreated. Following the completion of the Buda Tunnel in 1857, Clark worked on several smaller commissions.
Briefing on Chain Bridge: http://www.bridgesofbudapest.com/bridge/chain_bridge
(6 June 1897 – 16 August 1944) was a Church of Scotland missionary. She worked in Budapest, where she was arrested by the Nazis in 1944. She died in the concentration camp at Auschwitz later that year.
Haining was born at Lochenhead Farm in Dunscore, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. She was the fifth child of Thomas Haining, a farmer, and his first wife, Jane Mathison, a farmer’s daughter. She grew up as a member of the evangelical Craig church in Dunscore (Reformed Presbyterian until 1876, then Free Church of Scotland until 1900, and then United Free Church). She was educated at the village school, and won a scholarship to Dumfries Academy in 1909. She trained at the commercial college of Glasgow Athenaeum, and worked for 10 years as a secretary at a thread-maker’s in Paisley. She lived in Pollokshields in Glasgow and attended Queen’s Park West United Free Church.
She volunteered for service as a missionary in 1932, becoming matron of the girls’ home at the Scottish Mission School in Budapest, Hungary. The Scottish Mission in Budapest had been set up in 1841 “with a main focus on evangelizing to Hungarian Jews.” The mission had established a school in 1846, with funds provided by Christian Jews. Haining looked after 50 of the school’s 400 pupils (most of whom were Jewish), and quickly became fluent in Hungarian.
She was holidaying in Cornwall in 1939 when the Second World War broke out and she immediately returned to Budapest. She was ordered to return to Scotland in 1940 but refused, determined to remain with her girls. After the Nazi invasion of Hungary in March 1944, she again refused to leave.
She was arrested in April 1944 and detained by the Gestapo, accused, amongst other things, of working among Jews and listening to the BBC. She admitted all the charges, except those of political activity. She was detained at Fő utca prison in Buda, and then moved to a holding camp in Kistarcsa. She was sent to Auschwitz in May 1944, where she was tattooed as prisoner 79467. She sent a last postcard on 15 July 1944, and died “in hospital” at Auschwitz on 17 July 1944, of “cachexia following intestinal catarrh”, although it is thought that she may have died in the gas chambers on 16 August. She is one of a total of ten Scots – including two or three women – thought to have died in the Nazi extermination camps.
1. We highly recommend the excellent documentary of the IKON STÚDIÓ, a Budapest-based IKON STÚDIÓ, an intellectual workshop of film and sociography professionals aiming to preserve and spread the cultural heritage of the nations in the Danube Basin.
Szeretettel, Jane / With love, Jane (Jane Haining)
2. A personal and detailed story of her life is published by the Budapest based Vörösmarty Grammar School:
3. And here is the BBC documentary on Jane Haining:
Jane Haining The Scot Who Died in Auschwitz BBC Documentary 2014
Saint Margaret, Queen of Scots (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), also known as Margaret of Wessex, was an English princess of the House of Wessex. Margaret was sometimes called “The Pearl of Scotland”. Born in exile in Hungary, she was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. Margaret and her family returned to England in 1057, but fled to the Kingdom of Scotland following the Norman conquest of England of 1066. Around 1070 Margaret married Malcolm III of Scotland, becoming his queen consort. She was a pious woman, and among many charitable works she established a ferry across the Firth of Forth for pilgrims travelling to Dunfermline Abbey, which gave the towns of South Queensferry and North Queensferry their names. Margaret was the mother of three kings of Scotland and of a queen consort of England. According to the Life of Saint Margaret, attributed to Turgot of Durham, she died at Edinburgh Castle in 1093, just days after receiving the news of her husband’s death in battle. In 1250 she was canonised by Pope Innocent IV, and her remains were reinterred in a shrine at Dunfermline Abbey. Her relics were dispersed after the Scottish Reformation and subsequently lost.
Margaret from a medieval family tree.
Margaret was the daughter of the English prince, Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund Ironside, king of England. After the Danish conquest of England in 1016, Canute had the infant Edward exiled to the continent. He was taken first to the court of the Swedish king, Olof Skötkonung, and then to Kiev. As an adult, he travelled to Hungary, where in 1046 he supported Andrew I’s successful bid for the throne. He was then also known as “Andrew the Catholic” for his extreme aversion to pagans, and great loyalty to Rome. The provenance of Margaret’s mother, Agatha, is legally disputed, but Margaret was born in Hungary around 1045. Her brother Edgar the Ætheling and her sister Cristina were also born in Hungary around this time. Margaret grew up in a very religious environment in the Hungarian court.
Return to England
Still a child, she came to England with the rest of her family when her father, Edward, was recalled in 1057 as a possible successor to her great-uncle, the childless Edward the Confessor. Whether from natural or sinister causes, Edward died immediately on landing, but Margaret continued to reside at the English court where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, was considered a possible successor to the English throne. When the Confessor died in January 1066, Harold Godwinson was selected as king, Edgar perhaps being considered still too young. After Harold’s defeat at the battle of Hastings later that year, Edgar was proclaimed King of England, but when the Normans advanced on London, the Witenagemot presented Edgar to William the Conqueror who took him to Normandy before returning him to England in 1068, when Edgar, Margaret, Cristina and their mother Agatha fled north to Northumbria.
Journey to Scotland
According to tradition, the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumbria with her children and return to the continent. However, a storm drove their ship north to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where they are said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret’s Hope, near the village of North Queensferry. Margaret’s arrival in Scotland in 1068, after the failed revolt of the Northumbrian earls, has been heavily romanticized, though Symeon of Durham implied that her first meeting with Malcolm III may not have been until 1070, after William the Conqueror’s harrying of the north.
Malcolm was a widower with two sons, Donald and Duncan. He would have been attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret took place some time before the end of 1070. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland, in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar, as well as to increase his own power. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the county.
Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1094.
Edmund of Scotland (c.1070 – after 1097)
Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
Edgar of Scotland (c.1074 – 11 January 1107), King of Scotland from 1097 – 1107
Alexander I of Scotland (c.1078 – 23 April 1124), King of Scotland from 1107 – 1124
Edith of Scotland (c. 1080 – 1 May 1118), also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland (1082–1116), married Eustace III of Boulogne
David I of Scotland (c.1083 – 24 May 1153), King of Scotland from 1124 – 1153
Malcolm greeting Margaret on her arrival in Scotland. Detail from a mural by the Victorian artist William Hole
Margaret’s biographer Turgot, Bishop of St. Andrews, credits her with having a civilizing influence on her husband Malcolm by reading him stories from the Bible. She instigated religious reform, striving to make the worship and practices of the Church in Scotland conform to those of Rome. This she did with the inspiration and guidance of Lanfranc, the future Archbishop of Canterbury. She also worked to bring the Scottish Church practice in line with that of the continental church of her childhood. Due to these achievements, she was considered an exemplar of the “just ruler”, and influenced her husband and children – especially her youngest son, later David I – also to be just and holy rulers.
“The chroniclers all agree in depicting Queen Margaret as a strong, pure, noble character, who had very great influence over her husband, and through him over Scottish history, especially in it ecclesiastical aspects. Her religion, which was genuine and intense, was of the newest Roman style; and to her are attributed a number of reforms by which the Church of Scotland was considerably modified from the insular and primitive type which down to her time it had exhibited. Among those expressly mentioned are a change in the manner of observing Lent, which thenceforward began as elsewhere on Ash Wednesday and not as previously on the following Monday, and the abolition of the old practice of observing Saturday (Sabbath), not Sunday, as the day of rest from labour [sic] (see Skene’s Celtic Scotland, book ii chap. 8).”  The later editions, as an example, Eleventh Edition remove the term Sabbath and indicate the change was from the “non-observance of Sunday.”
She attended to charitable works, serving orphans and the poor every day before she ate, and washing the feet of the poor in imitation of Christ. She rose at midnight every night to attend church services. She invited the Benedictine order to establish a monastery at Dunfermline in Fife in 1072, and established ferries at Queensferry and North Berwick to assist pilgrims journeying from south of the Firth of Forth to St. Andrews in Fife. A cave on the banks of the Tower Burn in Dunfermline was used by her as a place of devotion and prayer. St Margaret’s Cave, now covered beneath a municipal car park, is open to the public. Amongst her other deeds, Margaret also instigated the restoration of the monastery at Iona. She is also known to have been an intercessor for the release of fellow English exiles, forced into serfdom by the conquest.
In her private life, Margaret was as devout as she was in her public duties. She spent much of her time in prayer, devotional reading, and ecclesiastical embroidery. This appears to have had a considerable effect on the more uncouth Malcolm who could not read; he so admired her devotion that he had her books decorated in gold and silver. One of these, a pocket gospel book with Evangelist portraits, is in the Bodleian Library in Oxford.
Malcolm seems to have been largely ignorant of the long-term effects of Margaret’s endeavours, not being especially religious himself. He was content for her to pursue her reforms as she wished, a testament to the strength and affection inherent in their marriage.
Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at the Battle of Alnwick on 13 November 1093. Her son Edgar was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was not yet fifty, but a life of constant austerity and fasting had taken their toll. Already ill, Margaret died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son. She was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. In 1250 her body and that of her husband were exhumed and placed in a new shrine in the Abbey. In 1560 Mary Queen of Scots had Margaret’s head removed to Edinburgh Castle as a relic to assist her in childbirth. In 1597 the head ended up with the Jesuits at the Scots’ College, Douai, France, but was lost during the French Revolution. Philip II of Spain had the other remains of Margaret and Malcolm Canmore transferred to the Escorial in Madrid, but they cannot now be found.
Site of the shrine of St. Margaret, Dunfermline Abbey, Fife
St Margaret’s Chapel, Edinburgh Castle
St Margaret’s Church in Dunfermline
Saint Margaret was canonised in 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. On 19 June 1250, after her canonisation, her remains were moved to a chapel in the eastern apse of Dunfermline Abbey. In 1693 Pope Innocent XII changed her feast day to 10 June in recognition of the birthdate of the son of James VII of Scotland and II of England. In the revision of the General Roman Calendar in 1969, 16 November became free and the Church transferred her feast day to 16 November, the day of her death, which had always been recognised in Scotland. However, some traditionalist Catholics continue to celebrate her feast day on 10 June.
She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.
Several churches are dedicated to Saint Margaret. One of the oldest is St Margaret’s Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, which was founded by her son King David I. The chapel was long thought to have been the oratory of Margaret herself, but is now considered to be a 12th-century establishment. The oldest building in Edinburgh, it was restored in the 19th century, and refurbished in the 1990s.
Others include the 13th-century Church of St Margaret the Queen in Buxted, East Sussex, St Margaret of Scotland, Aberdeen and the Church of England church in Budapest. There is another in Brittany, northern France, near Etel. (Sainte-Marguerite 56550 Locoal-Mendon, France—approximate address)
If you draw a straight line from Kirkcaldy to St Andrews you will find Leven (where I live) half way along it so I am 22 miles from Dunfermline.